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Mutui: saranno proibiti con penali i cambi in corsa

Mutui: saranno proibiti con penali i cambi in corsa

Torna la penale per l’estinzione mutuo e le surroghe

A luglio scorso è stata resa pubblica la notizia che arriva dall’Unione Europea e che riguarda la direttiva numero 4/2014/17, promulgata dalla Commissione Europea nel febbraio dell’anno scorso e che, all’articolo 25, parla di MDC cioè di “mortgage credit directive”.
In altre parole chi vorrà cambiare mutuo per trasferirlo presso un altro istituto bancario, approfittando dei migliori tassi di interesse o anche solo per cambiarli e quindi estinguere il capitale rimanente, sarà tenuto a pagare una penale sull’intero importo.
Secondo le disposizioni della direttiva l’Italia dovrà “adeguarsi” entro il 21 marzo del 2016, una data a partire dalla quale scatterà l’applicazione della stessa penale.
L’operatività della normativa suggerisce quindi di sbrigarsi a fare un’eventuale estinzione o surroga.

La penale anche sui mutui surrogati

La stessa penale si estenderà anche alle surroghe di un mutuo. Se infatti il contraente deciderà di cambiare istituto bancario e trasferirlo per avvantaggiarsi sulle spese ad esso collegate, cambiando magari il tasso di interesse da fisso a variabile e viceversa in base alle proprie esigenze, sarà applicata la stessa penale.
Se si considera che il mercato bancario riferito ai mutui surrogati oggi si aggira intorno al 60% delle richieste, si capisce come sarà potentemente messo in crisi da una direttiva del genere.
La stessa direttiva poi va in netto contrasto con la legge Bersani del 2007 (l’allora Ministro dello Sviluppo Economico), che gradualmente aveva avviato una progressiva estinzione di tutti gli aggravi di spese su operazioni, quali proprio l’estinzione anticipata o la possibilità di risparmiare cambiandolo il mutuo stesso in corsa.
La stessa legge Bersani avviò una stagione di più libera concorrenza sul mercato bancario, che è risultata essere vincente.

Aumento dei mutui e il ruolo di internet

Questa direttiva europea arriva in un momento in cui i mutui stanno registrando un segno positivo dopo un lungo periodo di crisi. Il rapporto ISTAT di fine luglio, infatti, ci spiega come a fronte di un calo della compravendita di immobili, ci sia stato comunque un aumento dei mutui. Questo dato è da attribuire anche alla nuova risorsa, il web, che offre numerosi strumenti per capire in maniera autonoma quale sia il miglior mutuo o, semplicemente, quello più adatto ad una specifica esigenza. Non è difficile infatti trovare pagine come questa quando si cercato mutui e i relativi dettagli anche solo allo scopo di toglierci qualche dubbio in materia.

L’Italia obbligata ad adeguarsi

Si ripresenta quindi il problema dell’adeguamento delle leggi interne a uno stato europeo con le direttive che arrivano dalla comunità di cui fa parte.
La stessa norma che in Italia sarà operativa dal marzo del 2016 è già entrata in vigore in altri stati dell’Unione Europea.
Tuttavia non è comprensibile il motivo per cui, chi ha un comportamento virtuoso rispetto all’estinzione anticipata del mutuo o chi vuole avvantaggiarsi risparmiando sui tassi di interesse, debba essere penalizzato.
Questo aspetto è stato fatto notare con forza da diverse associazioni dei consumatori, tra sui Adusbef ma anche Federconsumatori, che segnalano come l’Italia farà un balzo indietro di almeno 8 anni con una direttiva che in realtà mira soltanto al “profitto delle banche” e a tutto svantaggio dei contraenti dei mutui. Questa “armonizzazione” rispetto al diritto comunitario potrebbe pesare non poco sulle tasche degli italiani.

A quanto potrebbe ammontare la penale sui mutui

Qualcuno si è legittimamente chiesto a quanto potrebbe ammontare questa penale, in considerazione degli attuali tassi di interesse (sia fissi che variabili), facendo un confronto su quanto avveniva prima della legge Bersani del 2007.
Il Sole 24 ore ha provato a calcolare questo importo quantificandolo in media sui 3750 euro per ogni mutuo estinto anticipatamente, che è in realtà più o meno lo stesso importo di prima del 2007.
Anche il direttore del marketing di Mutuionline.it, Roberto Anedda, ha spiegato nel particolare cosa potrebbe accadere nel calcolo della penale.
Prima del 2007 c’era una netta distinzione tra tassi variabili e fissi, per cui la penale applicata ai mutui a tasso variabile era intorno al 1,5%, mentre per quelli a tasso fisso era intorno al 2,5%. C’era però un meccanismo secondo il quale tale penale diminuiva di pari passo con il pagamento delle rate.
Nell’ipotesi che l’applicazione in percentuale rimanga la stessa un mutuo a tasso fisso, del quale sono già stati corrisposti gli importi per 10 anni e rimangano per esempio da saldare 100 mila euro, si vedrebbe applicata una penale pari a 2500 euro.
Quello che però spaventa è l’impossibilità di previsione esatta della stessa penale, in quanto non c’è completa trasparenza delle politiche di redditività delle stesse banche.
Se si parla invece di mutui surrogati è vero che la maggior parte sono già stati trasferiti e in tal senso l’impatto con la penale potrebbe essere molto limitato, sempre secondo Anedda.
Un altro articolo della stessa direttiva (il 12 per la precisione) apre le porte anche a un altro spauracchio, che è quello di collegare gli stessi mutui con fondi pensionistici, conti correnti, polizze assicurative, ecc. Al di la dell’aumento dei costi per i clienti delle banche, viene da chiedersi cosa potrebbe accadere, per esempio, se su un fondo pensionistico intervenisse una penale sul mutuo.
La direttiva insomma farà certamente crollare le richieste, non solo di estinzione dei mutui, ma anche quelle di surroghe, con spese che andranno a pesare comunque sui contribuenti.


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